Version 0.9.0 (February 28, 2021)

Many documentation improvements and a restyled and restructured website with a new logo (#1564, #1579, #1617, #1668, #1731, #1750, #1757, #1759).

New features and improvements:

  • The geopandas.read_file function now accepts more general file-like objects (e.g. fsspec open file objects). It will now also automatically recognize zipped files (#1535).

  • The GeoDataFrame.plot() method now provides access to the pandas plotting functionality for the non-geometry columns, either using the kind keyword or the accessor method (e.g. gdf.plot(kind=”bar”) or (#1465).

  • New from_wkt(), from_wkb(), to_wkt(), to_wkb() methods for GeoSeries to construct a GeoSeries from geometries in WKT or WKB representation, or to convert a GeoSeries to a pandas Seriew with WKT or WKB values (#1710).

  • New GeoSeries.z attribute to access the z-coordinates of Point geometries (similar to the existing .x and .y attributes) (#1773).

  • The to_crs() method now handles missing values (#1618).

  • Support for pandas’ new .attrs functionality (#1658).

  • The dissolve() method now allows dissolving by no column (by=None) to create a union of all geometries (single-row GeoDataFrame) (#1568).

  • New estimate_utm_crs() method on GeoSeries/GeoDataFrame to determine the UTM CRS based on the bounds (#1646).

  • GeoDataFrame.from_dict() now accepts geometry and crs keywords (#1619).

  • GeoDataFrame.to_postgis() and geopandas.read_postgis() now supports both sqlalchemy engine and connection objects (#1638).

  • The GeoDataFrame.explode() method now allows exploding based on a non-geometry column, using the pandas implementation (#1720).

  • Performance improvement in GeoDataFrame/GeoSeries.explode() when using the PyGEOS backend (#1693).

  • The binary operation and predicate methods (eg intersection(), intersects()) have a new align keyword which allows optionally not aligning on the index before performing the operation with align=False (#1668).

  • The GeoDataFrame.dissolve() method now supports all relevant keywords of groupby(), i.e. the level, sort, observed and dropna keywords (#1845).

  • The geopandas.overlay() function now accepts make_valid=False to skip the step to ensure the input geometries are valid using buffer(0) (#1802).

  • The GeoDataFrame.to_json() method gained a drop_id keyword to optionally not write the GeoDataFrame’s index as the “id” field in the resulting JSON (#1637).

  • A new aspect keyword in the plotting methods to optionally allow retaining the original aspect (#1512)

  • A new interval keyword in the legend_kwds group of the plot() method to control the appearance of the legend labels when using a classification scheme (#1605).

  • The spatial index of a GeoSeries (accessed with the sindex attribute) is now stored on the underlying array. This ensures that the spatial index is preserved in more operations where possible, and that multiple geometry columns of a GeoDataFrame can each have a spatial index (#1444).

  • Addition of a has_sindex attribute on the GeoSeries/GeoDataFrame to check if a spatial index has already been initialized (#1627).

  • The geopandas.testing.assert_geoseries_equal() and assert_geodataframe_equal() testing utilities now have a normalize keyword (False by default) to normalize geometries before comparing for equality (#1826). Those functions now also give a more informative error message when failing (#1808).

Deprecations and compatibility notes:

  • The is_ring attribute currently returns True for Polygons. In the future, this will be False (#1631). In addition, start to check it for LineStrings and LinearRings (instead of always returning False).

  • The deprecated objects keyword in the intersection() method of the GeoDataFrame/GeoSeries.sindex spatial index object has been removed (#1444).

Bug fixes:

  • Fix regression in the plot() method raising an error with empty geometries (#1702, #1828).

  • Fix geopandas.overlay() to preserve geometries of the correct type which are nested within a GeometryCollection as a result of the overlay operation (#1582). In addition, a warning will now be raised if geometries of different type are dropped from the result (#1554).

  • Fix the repr of an empty GeoSeries to not show spurious warnings (#1673).

  • Fix the .crs for empty GeoDataFrames (#1560).

  • Fix geopandas.clip to preserve the correct geometry column name (#1566).

  • Fix bug in plot() method when using legend_kwds with multiple subplots (#1583)

  • Fix spurious warning with missing_kwds keyword of the plot() method when there are no areas with missing data (#1600).

  • Fix the plot() method to correctly align values passed to the column keyword as a pandas Series (#1670).

  • Fix bug in plotting MultiPoints when passing values to determine the color (#1694)

  • The rename_geometry() method now raises a more informative error message when a duplicate column name is used (#1602).

  • Fix explode() method to preserve the CRS (#1655)

  • Fix the GeoSeries.apply() method to again accept the convert_dtype keyword to be consistent with pandas (#1636).

  • Fix GeoDataFrame.apply() to preserve the CRS when possible (#1848).

  • Fix bug in containment test as geom in geoseries (#1753).

  • The shift() method of a GeoSeries/GeoDataFrame now preserves the CRS (#1744).

  • The PostGIS IO functionality now quotes table names to ensure it works with case-sensitive names (#1825).

  • Fix the GeoSeries constructor without passing data but only an index (#1798).

Notes on (optional) dependencies:

  • GeoPandas 0.9.0 dropped support for Python 3.5. Further, the minimum required versions are pandas 0.24, numpy 1.15 and shapely 1.6 and fiona 1.8.

  • The descartes package is no longer required for plotting polygons. This functionality is now included by default in GeoPandas itself, when matplotlib is available (#1677).

  • Fiona is now only imported when used in read_file/to_file. This means you can now force geopandas to install without fiona installed (although it is still a default requirement) (#1775).

  • Compatibility with the upcoming Shapely 1.8 (#1659, #1662, #1819).

Version 0.8.2 (January 25, 2021)

Small bug-fix release for compatibility with PyGEOS 0.9.

Version 0.8.1 (July 15, 2020)

Small bug-fix release:

  • Fix a regression in the plot() method when visualizing with a JenksCaspallSampled or FisherJenksSampled scheme (#1486).

  • Fix spurious warning in GeoDataFrame.to_postgis (#1497).

  • Fix the un-pickling with pd.read_pickle of files written with older GeoPandas versions (#1511).

Version 0.8.0 (June 24, 2020)

Experimental: optional use of PyGEOS to speed up spatial operations (#1155). PyGEOS is a faster alternative for Shapely (being contributed back to a future version of Shapely), and is used in element-wise spatial operations and for spatial index in e.g. sjoin (#1343, #1401, #1421, #1427, #1428). See the [installation docs]( for more info and how to enable it.

New features and improvements:

  • IO enhancements: - New GeoDataFrame.to_postgis() method to write to PostGIS database (#1248). - New Apache Parquet and Feather file format support (#1180, #1435) - Allow appending to files with GeoDataFrame.to_file (#1229). - Add support for the ignore_geometry keyword in read_file to only read

    the attribute data. If set to True, a pandas DataFrame without geometry is returned (#1383).

    • geopandas.read_file now supports reading from file-like objects (#1329).

    • GeoDataFrame.to_file now supports specifying the CRS to write to the file

    (#802). By default it still uses the CRS of the GeoDataFrame. - New chunksize keyword in geopandas.read_postgis to read a query in

    chunks (#1123).

  • Improvements related to geometry columns and CRS: - Any column of the GeoDataFrame that has a “geometry” dtype is now returned

    as a GeoSeries. This means that when having multiple geometry columns, not only the “active” geometry column is returned as a GeoSeries, but also accessing another geometry column (gdf[“other_geom_column”]) gives a GeoSeries (#1336).

    • Multiple geometry columns in a GeoDataFrame can now each have a different CRS. The global attribute continues to returns the CRS of the “active” geometry column. The CRS of other geometry columns can be accessed from the column itself (eg gdf[“other_geom_column”].crs) (#1339).

    • New set_crs() method on GeoDataFrame/GeoSeries to set the CRS of naive geometries (#747).

  • Improvements related to plotting: - The y-axis is now scaled depending on the center of the plot when using a

    geographic CRS, instead of using an equal aspect ratio (#1290).

    • When passing a column of categorical dtype to the column= keyword of the GeoDataFrame plot(), we now honor all categories and its order (#1483). In addition, a new categories keyword allows to specify all categories and their order otherwise (#1173).

    • For choropleths using a classification scheme (using scheme=), the legend_kwds accept two new keywords to control the formatting of the legend: fmt with a format string for the bin edges (#1253), and labels to pass fully custom class labels (#1302).

  • New covers() and covered_by() methods on GeoSeries/GeoDataframe for the equivalent spatial predicates (#1460, #1462).

  • GeoPandas now warns when using distance-based methods with data in a geographic projection (#1378).


  • When constructing a GeoSeries or GeoDataFrame from data that already has a CRS, a deprecation warning is raised when both CRS don’t match, and in the future an error will be raised in such a case. You can use the new set_crs method to override an existing CRS. See [the docs](

  • The helper functions in the geopandas.plotting module are deprecated for public usage (#656).

  • The functions are deprecated, use the top-level read_file and to_file instead (#1407).

  • The set operators (&, |, ^, -) are deprecated, use the intersection(), union(), symmetric_difference(), difference() methods instead (#1255).

  • The sindex for empty dataframe will in the future return an empty spatial index instead of None (#1438).

  • The objects keyword in the intersection method of the spatial index returned by the sindex attribute is deprecated and will be removed in the future (#1440).

Bug fixes:

  • Fix the total_bounds() method to ignore missing and empty geometries (#1312).

  • Fix geopandas.clip when masking with non-overlapping area resulting in an empty GeoDataFrame (#1309, #1365).

  • Fix error in geopandas.sjoin when joining on an empty geometry column (#1318).

  • CRS related fixes: pandas.concat preserves CRS when concatenating GeoSeries objects (#1340), preserve the CRS in geopandas.clip (#1362) and in GeoDataFrame.astype (#1366).

  • Fix bug in GeoDataFrame.explode() when ‘level_1’ is one of the column names (#1445).

  • Better error message when rtree is not installed (#1425).

  • Fix bug in GeoSeries.equals() (#1451).

  • Fix plotting of multi-part geometries with additional style keywords (#1385).

And we now have a [Code of Conduct](!

GeoPandas 0.8.0 is the last release to support Python 3.5. The next release will require Python 3.6, pandas 0.24, numpy 1.15 and shapely 1.6 or higher.

Version 0.7.0 (February 16, 2020)

Support for Python 2.7 has been dropped. GeoPandas now works with Python >= 3.5.

The important API change of this release is that GeoPandas now requires PROJ > 6 and pyproj > 2.2, and that the .crs attribute of a GeoSeries and GeoDataFrame no longer stores the CRS information as a proj4 string or dict, but as a pyproj.CRS object (#1101).

This gives a better user interface and integrates improvements from pyproj and PROJ 6, but might also require some changes in your code. Check the [migration guide]( in the documentation.

Other API changes;

  • The GeoDataFrame.to_file method will now also write the GeoDataFrame index to the file, if the index is named and/or non-integer. You can use the index=True/False keyword to overwrite this default inference (#1059).

New features and improvements:

  • A new geopandas.clip function to clip a GeoDataFrame to the spatial extent of another shape (#1128).

  • The geopandas.overlay function now works for all geometry types, including points and linestrings in addition to polygons (#1110).

  • The plot() method gained support for missing values (in the column that determines the colors). By default it doesn’t plot the corresponding geometries, but using the new missing_kwds argument you can specify how to style those geometries (#1156).

  • The plot() method now also supports plotting GeometryCollection and LinearRing objects (#1225).

  • Added support for filtering with a geometry or reading a subset of the rows in geopandas.read_file (#1160).

  • Added support for the new nullable integer data type of pandas in GeoDataFrame.to_file (#1220).

Bug fixes:

  • GeoSeries.reset_index() now correctly results in a GeoDataFrame instead of DataFrame (#1252).

  • Fixed the geopandas.sjoin function to handle MultiIndex correctly (#1159).

  • Fixed the geopandas.sjoin function to preserve the index name of the left GeoDataFrame (#1150).

Version 0.6.3 (February 6, 2020)

Small bug-fix release:

  • Compatibility with Shapely 1.7 and pandas 1.0 (#1244).

  • Fix GeoDataFrame.fillna to accept non-geometry values again when there are no missing values in the geometry column. This should make it easier to fill the numerical columns of the GeoDataFrame (#1279).

Version 0.6.2 (November 18, 2019)

Small bug-fix release fixing a few regressions:

  • Fix a regression in passing an array of RRB(A) tuples to the .plot() method (#1178, #1211).

  • Fix the bounds and total_bounds attributes for empty GeoSeries, which also fixes the repr of an empty or all-NA GeoSeries (#1184, #1195).

  • Fix filtering of a GeoDataFrame to preserve the index type when ending up with an empty result (#1190).

Version 0.6.1 (October 12, 2019)

Small bug-fix release fixing a few regressions:

  • Fix astype when converting to string with Multi geometries (#1145) or when converting a dataframe without geometries (#1144).

  • Fix GeoSeries.fillna to accept np.nan again (#1149).

Version 0.6.0 (September 27, 2019)

Important note! This will be the last release to support Python 2.7 (#1031)

API changes:

  • A refactor of the internals based on the pandas ExtensionArray interface (#1000). The main user visible changes are: - The .dtype of a GeoSeries is now a ‘geometry’ dtype (and no longer a numpy object dtype). - The .values of a GeoSeries now returns a custom GeometryArray, and no longer a numpy array. To get back a numpy array of Shapely scalars, you can convert explicitly using np.asarray(..).

  • The GeoSeries constructor now raises a warning when passed non-geometry data. Currently the constructor falls back to return a pandas Series, but in the future this will raise an error (#1085).

  • The missing value handling has been changed to now separate the concepts of missing geometries and empty geometries (#601, 1062). In practice this means that (see [the docs]( for more details): - GeoSeries.isna now considers only missing values, and if you want to check for empty geometries, you can use GeoSeries.is_empty (GeoDataFrame.isna already only looked at missing values). - GeoSeries.dropna now actually drops missing values (before it didn’t drop either missing or empty geometries) - GeoSeries.fillna only fills missing values (behaviour unchanged). - GeoSeries.align uses missing values instead of empty geometries by default to fill non-matching index entries.

New features and improvements:

  • Addition of a GeoSeries.affine_transform method, equivalent of Shapely’s function (#1008).

  • Addition of a GeoDataFrame.rename_geometry method to easily rename the active geometry column (#1053).

  • Addition of geopandas.show_versions() function, which can be used to give an overview of the installed libraries in bug reports (#899).

  • The legend_kwds keyword of the plot() method can now also be used to specify keywords for the color bar (#1102).

  • Performance improvement in the sjoin() operation by re-using existing spatial index of the input dataframes, if available (#789).

  • Updated documentation to work with latest version of geoplot and contextily (#1044, #1088).

  • A new geopandas.options configuration, with currently a single option to control the display precision of the coordinates (options.display_precision). The default is now to show less coordinates (3 for projected and 5 for geographic coordinates), but the default can be overridden with the option.

Bug fixes:

  • Also try to use pysal instead of mapclassify if available (#1082).

  • The GeoDataFrame.astype() method now correctly returns a GeoDataFrame if the geometry column is preserved (#1009).

  • The to_crs method now uses always_xy=True to ensure correct lon/lat order handling for pyproj>=2.2.0 (#1122).

  • Fixed passing list-like colors in the plot() method in case of “multi” geometries (#1119).

  • Fixed the coloring of shapes and colorbar when passing a custom norm in the plot() method (#1091, #1089).

  • Fixed GeoDataFrame.to_file to preserve VFS file paths (e.g. when a “s3://” path is specified) (#1124).

  • Fixed failing case in geopandas.sjoin with empty geometries (#1138).

In addition, the minimum required versions of some dependencies have been increased: GeoPandas now requirs pandas >=0.23.4 and matplotlib >=2.0.1 (#1002).

Version 0.5.1 (July 11, 2019)

  • Compatibility with latest mapclassify version 2.1.0 (#1025).

Version 0.5.0 (April 25, 2019)


  • Significant performance improvement (around 10x) for GeoDataFrame.iterfeatures, which also improves GeoDataFrame.to_file (#864).

  • File IO enhancements based on Fiona 1.8:
    • Support for writing bool dtype (#855) and datetime dtype, if the file format supports it (#728).

    • Support for writing dataframes with multiple geometry types, if the file format allows it (e.g. GeoJSON for all types, or ESRI Shapefile for Polygon+MultiPolygon) (#827, #867, #870).

  • Compatibility with pyproj >= 2 (#962).

  • A new geopandas.points_from_xy() helper function to convert x and y coordinates to Point objects (#896).

  • The buffer and interpolate methods now accept an array-like to specify a variable distance for each geometry (#781).

  • Addition of a relate method, corresponding to the shapely method that returns the DE-9IM matrix (#853).

  • Plotting improvements:
    • Performance improvement in plotting by only flattening the geometries if there are actually ‘Multi’ geometries (#785).

    • Choropleths: access to all mapclassify classification schemes and addition of the classification_kwds keyword in the plot method to specify options for the scheme (#876).

    • Ability to specify a matplotlib axes object on which to plot the color bar with the cax keyword, in order to have more control over the color bar placement (#894).

  • Changed the default provider in from Google (now requires an API key) to Geocode.Farm (#907, #975).

Bug fixes:

  • Remove the edge in the legend marker (#807).

  • Fix the align method to preserve the CRS (#829).

  • Fix geopandas.testing.assert_geodataframe_equal to correctly compare left and right dataframes (#810).

  • Fix in choropleth mapping when the values contain missing values (#877).

  • Better error message in sjoin if the input is not a GeoDataFrame (#842).

  • Fix in read_postgis to handle nullable (missing) geometries (#856).

  • Correctly passing through the parse_dates keyword in read_postgis to the underlying pandas method (#860).

  • Fixed the shape of Antarctica in the included demo dataset ‘naturalearth_lowres’ (by updating to the latest version) (#804).

Version 0.4.1 (March 5, 2019)

Small bug-fix release for compatibility with the latest Fiona and PySAL releases:

  • Compatibility with Fiona 1.8: fix deprecation warning (#854).

  • Compatibility with PySAL 2.0: switched to mapclassify instead of PySAL as dependency for choropleth mapping with the scheme keyword (#872).

  • Fix for new overlay implementation in case the intersection is empty (#800).

Version 0.4.0 (July 15, 2018)


  • Improved overlay function (better performance, several incorrect behaviours fixed) (#429)

  • Pass keywords to control legend behavior (legend_kwds) to plot (#434)

  • Add basic support for reading remote datasets in read_file (#531)

  • Pass kwargs for buffer operation on GeoSeries (#535)

  • Expose all geopy services as options in geocoding (#550)

  • Faster write speeds to GeoPackage (#605)

  • Permit read_file filtering with a bounding box from a GeoDataFrame (#613)

  • Set CRS on GeoDataFrame returned by read_postgis (#627)

  • Permit setting markersize for Point GeoSeries plots with column values (#633)

  • Started an example gallery (#463, #690, #717)

  • Support for plotting MultiPoints (#683)

  • Testing functionalty (e.g. assert_geodataframe_equal) is now publicly exposed (#707)

  • Add explode method to GeoDataFrame (similar to the GeoSeries method) (#671)

  • Set equal aspect on active axis on multi-axis figures (#718)

  • Pass array of values to column argument in plot (#770)

Bug fixes:

  • Ensure that colorbars are plotted on the correct axis (#523)

  • Handle plotting empty GeoDataFrame (#571)

  • Save z-dimension when writing files (#652)

  • Handle reading empty shapefiles (#653)

  • Correct dtype for empty result of spatial operations (#685)

  • Fix empty sjoin handling for pandas>=0.23 (#762)

Version 0.3.0 (August 29, 2017)


  • Improve plotting performance using matplotlib.collections (#267)

  • Improve default plotting appearance. The defaults now follow the new matplotlib defaults (#318, #502, #510)

  • Provide access to x/y coordinates as attributes for Point GeoSeries (#383)

  • Make the NYBB dataset available through geopandas.datasets (#384)

  • Enable sjoin on non-integer-index GeoDataFrames (#422)

  • Add cx indexer to GeoDataFrame (#482)

  • GeoDataFrame.from_features now also accepts a Feature Collection (#225, #507)

  • Use index label instead of integer id in output of iterfeatures and to_json (#421)

  • Return empty data frame rather than raising an error when performing a spatial join with non overlapping geodataframes (#335)

Bug fixes:

  • Compatibility with shapely 1.6.0 (#512)

  • Fix fiona.filter results when bbox is not None (#372)

  • Fix dissolve to retain CRS (#389)

  • Fix cx behavior when using index of 0 (#478)

  • Fix display of lower bin in legend label of choropleth plots using a PySAL scheme (#450)

Version 0.2.0


  • Complete overhaul of the documentation

  • Addition of overlay to perform spatial overlays with polygons (#142)

  • Addition of sjoin to perform spatial joins (#115, #145, #188)

  • Addition of __geo_interface__ that returns a python data structure to represent the GeoSeries as a GeoJSON-like FeatureCollection (#116) and iterfeatures method (#178)

  • Addition of the explode (#146) and dissolve (#310, #311) methods.

  • Addition of the sindex attribute, a Spatial Index using the optional dependency rtree (libspatialindex) that can be used to speed up certain operations such as overlays (#140, #141).

  • Addition of the coordinate indexer to slice a GeoSeries based on a bounding box of the coordinates (#55).

  • Improvements to plotting: ability to specify edge colors (#173), support for the vmin, vmax, figsize, linewidth keywords (#207), legends for chloropleth plots (#210), color points by specifying a colormap (#186) or a single color (#238).

  • Larger flexibility of to_crs, accepting both dicts and proj strings (#289)

  • Addition of embedded example data, accessible through geopandas.datasets.get_path.

API changes:

  • In the plot method, the axes keyword is renamed to ax for consistency with pandas, and the colormap keyword is renamed to cmap for consistency with matplotlib (#208, #228, #240).

Bug fixes:

  • Properly handle rows with missing geometries (#139, #193).

  • Fix GeoSeries.to_json (#263).

  • Correctly serialize metadata when pickling (#199, #206).

  • Fix merge and concat to return correct GeoDataFrame (#247, #320, #322).